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WHAT IS Arduino?
CABLES, WIRES and PINS
ARDUINO SOFTWARE LIBRARIES
Many great additional capabilities to run new and different hardware devices are available in
whose code was written and contributed by many different people. Example: The OneWire and DallasTemperature libraries are needed to easily use the DS18B20 temperature sensors. Very detailed information on Arduino Libraries is on the Arduino site
NEW, Easier way to install Arduino Libraries (Link):
If you get a Library that is labelled "Master", like "RF24-Master.zip" you must RENAME the Zip file
the folder inside it to remove the "-Master" part! Otherwise the new "Easy Install" will fail with "Library Name not allowed" etc. (This is because these libraries came from GitHub). Details!
Arduino Libraries contributed by users:
There are many (hundreds) of very useful libraries contributed by people in the Arduino Community. Most of these libraries are now listed on the Arduino.cc site. Click on
to see them. The following is an outline of the available categories:
Data Structures and Algorithms
Home Automation and Internet of Things
Input / Output
Buttons & Debouncing
Multiple LED Control
Other Input / Output
AC Zero-Cross PWM
Schedulers and Pseudo Operating Systems
Storage & Memory
Testing, Utilities and Power Saving
(Get ..almost.. all the Libraries used in our examples HERE:)
And many useful Libraries
here from Rob Tillaart!
NEW, Easier way to install Arduino Libraries (Link):
ERRORS you may see caused by Library problems:
When you try to Verify (Compile) an Arduino sketch you may see error messages like these:
Ultrasonic_Serial.pde:1:24: error: Ultrasonic.h:
No such file or directory
Ultrasonic_Serial:4: error: 'Ultrasonic'
does not name a type
If you are seeing errors like those, it means a Library the sketch needs cannot be found. This is probably because you never downloaded the needed library, or it was installed incorrectly. Here, we'll try to explain this Library Stuff!
SKETCHES and LIBRARIES: What's the difference??
Sketchbook projects ("Sketches") and Libraries are two different things.
are software tools that other people wrote that you can use in your various Arduino projects.
are saved in *.ino files which are your Arduino applications that you create. They have the setup() and loop() routines, which are the high level portions of code that drive your software. Arduino "Sketches" are what other systems call "Programs"...
Your *.ino files can be in the sketchbook location (for easy access) or anywhere else you want to put them. Just open them and use them. Your .ino sketches have access to the library tools even if the .ino is not in the sketchbook.
The newer Arduino IDE 1.0x versions of the IDE save Sketches as ".ino" files. Older versions like 0023 save sketches as .pde files. The IDE will not display sketches that have the 'other' filetype, but you CAN load them by going to File>Load and navigating to them. When you save them they will be saved with the filetype of .pde (IF you are running the 0022, 0023 IDE) or .ino (IF you are running the 1.0x IDE).
Later: Combining Arduino Sketches
This is often difficult. Here is an approach that may help you be successful:
FINDING your Arduino "libraries" Folder
This is sometimes confusing. Here's the easy way to find yours:
Start your Arduino IDE Software
Click on FILE and then PREFERENCES
entry, and copy it.
Paste that location into Windows Explorer or MAC Finder
Find the folder there named "libraries". IF it does not exist, create it.
Make a desktop shortcut to that folder (rightclick and drag it to the desktop). Later you can use this to easily check out your "libraries" folder. This is also the target folder you will drag and drop new Library folders into.
Which Libraries do I have Installed??
You can check on which libraries have been installed in your Arduino IDE:
Click on Sketch and hover over Import Library. You will see a list like this (right) of the libraries you have installed. NOTE: The Libraries at the top, before the horizontal bar are Libraries that come pre-installed with every Arduino IDE. Below that are "Contributed" libraries that you have installed.
Installing New Libraries: The New, Easier way:
Arduino IDE versions 1.05, 1.63 and later now have a much easier way of adding new libraries. See the photo:
In the Arduino IDE, click
Sketch>Include Library>Add .ZIP Library...
Navigate to the ZIP file or folder containing the new library and click on it.
If the library is installed successfully, you will see this (right) in the lower status bar of the Arduino IDE.
NOTE: The new library is immediately recognized by the IDE, without restarting!
Installing New Libraries: The Old / Basic way:
(Arduino as of 1.05 version has an easier way to install libraries that come in the form of a .ZIP file or folder . See above section!)
CLOSE the Arduino IDE if it's open.. Open it AFTER you install the new library folder INSIDE the "libraries" folder.
Now you're ready to actually get the new library into the "libraries" folder.
To do so, download the library you need and unzip it to some temporary folder or desktop. It should be in a folder of its own, and will typically contain at least two files, one with a .h suffix and one with a .cpp suffix.
IF you downloaded the ZIP file from GitHub or some other place it may have a funny folder name like
"freetronics-IRTemp-d10478b" when you unzipped it). Rename it so that the SAME name is used for:
The .h file and .cpp file Inside the folder
In the above example, the folder name should be "IRTemp" .
Open your Arduino "libraries" folder. Drag and Drop the new library folder in there. Then
the Arduino programming environment, and you should see your new library in the
Sketch > Import Library
NOTE: With latest Arduino versions like 1.5.3+ it seems that arduino scans all the folders in 'libraries' and makes a list of all their .h files. So it does not REALLY matter what the name of the FOLDER is! But make sure you don't have two folders with the same named .h file in it. Details... Hmmmm.
Libraries provide extra functionality for use in sketches, e.g. working with hardware or manipulating data. To use a library in a sketch, select it from the
Sketch > Import Library
menu. This will insert one or more
statements at the top of the sketch and compile the library with your sketch. Because libraries are uploaded to the board with your sketch, they increase the amount of space it takes up. If a sketch no longer needs a library, simply delete its
statements from the top of your code.
There is a
list of libraries, here
. Some libraries are included with the Arduino software. Others can be downloaded from a variety of sources.
Most libraries come with example sketches to show how to use them. Get to them from the
menu item (right). The first section comes with every Arduino installation, followed by libraries you have added, followed by standard libraries supplied with Arduino.
If you use an example, SaveAs with a new name if you want to be able to change it.
ArduinoInfo.Info Example Software: Current Library Contents
Even after using and installing libraries for a while, it is still sometimes challenging to get everything to work. Many libraries have finally been upgraded to work OK with Arduino IDE1.0 and later as well as earlier versions. There are many example software sketches on this ArduinoInfo.Info WIKI
and many use libraries. We have uploaded a Zip file with the complete "libraries" folder we currently have (and will update from time to time
NEEDS UPDATE NOW: 1/15
You can download it here:
You then could Unzip it into your arduino sketchbook > libraries folder, or unzip it in a temporary location and copy the libraries you want into your "libraries" folder.
Look at the #include statement(s) in your sketch. The filename should change color to "red-orange" from black. That means the library was found. (You should see a "keywords.txt" file in the library folder. You can check for that. A few libraries do not implement this and the color will not change).
CUSTOM SKETCHBOOK/LIBRARY LOCATION:
A SUGGESTED WAY IF YOU WANT TO CREATE A CUSTOM SKETCHBOOK/LIBRARY LOCATION:
If you want to add a new library to the library system, so that it may be used by a program in an "include" statement, then put it in the
folder inside your Sketchbook Folder..
Decide where you want your own sketches to be, create that folder, put your sketches there. Go to:
File, Preferences, and set the sketchbook location to that location. If there is NOT yet a "libraries" folder then create it. Put folders with libraries you download or create in the "libraries" folder.
The IDE (Interactive Development Environment) wants each sketch to be in its own folder, so they have should be in a folder of the name of the .ino file in the sketch folder. Then they will appear in your sketches menu. The easiest way to do this is to open your file, and go to File / Save As, and
browse to that sketchbook location and save the file to that folder. The IDE will automatically detect that you are in the sketchbook, and create a subfolder of the same name.
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